عوامل ناکامی نظام حکمرانی ایالات متحده آمریکا در مدیریت بحران همه گیری ویروس کووید-19

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری مدیریت دولتی، گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت دولتی، باشگاه پژوهشگران و نخبگان جوان، قائمشهر، ایران

چکیده

ایالات‌متحده‌آمریکا رتبۀ نخست آمار مبتلایان و مرگ‌ومیر ناشی از بحران همه‌گیری ویروس کووید-19 را در جهان داراست و به‌لحاظ مدیریت و رهبری ضعیف بحران کووید-19 مورد انتقادات فراوانی قرار گرفته‌است. ازاین‌رو، این پرسش مطرح می‌شود که عوامل ناکامی نظام حکمرانی ایالات‌متحده در مدیریت بحران همه‌گیری ویروس کووید-19 کدام‌اند؟ برای پاسخ به این پرسش، مقالات منتشرشده در سال‌های 2020-2021 مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار گرفتند. بدین منظور، از روش فراترکیب و کدگذاری باز استفاده شده است. یافته‌های فراترکیب نشان می‌دهد که مقالات مورد مطالعه شش عامل اصلی: عوامل ساختاری (فدرالیسم و روابط بین‌دولتی و تفکیک قوا (سِنا، مجلس نمایندگان، و دولت فدرال))؛ عوامل سیاسی (ایدئولوژی سیاسی، صنعت سیاسی، و قطبی‌سازی حزبی و سیاسی)؛ عوامل مربوط به مدیریت و رهبری عمومی (ویژگی‌های شخصیتی رئیس‌جمهور ایالات متحده آمریکا (ترامپیسم)، و مدیریت و رهبری بحران)؛ عوامل اجتماعی (بی‌اعتمادی، بی‌عدالتی اجتماعی، و گسستگی (عدم‌یکپارچگی) اجتماعی)؛ عوامل مرتبط با ماهیت و ظرفیت دولت (ناکارآمدی بوروکراسی (ساختار اداری دولت) و خصوصی‌سازی)، و عوامل خط‌مشی (خط‌مشی‌های نئولیبرال و خط‌مشی‌های بهداشتی) را به‌ترتیب به‌عنوان عوامل ناکامی نظام حکمرانی ایالات‌متحده در مدیریت بحران کووید-19 مطرح می‌کنند. دانش حاصل از این پژوهش می‌تواند نگاه اندیشمندان و کارگزاران کشورهای دنیا را نسبت به پارادایم‌ها و مبانی نظری مدیریتی و حکمرانی برخاسته از ایالات‌متحده تغییر دهد. زیرا، عوامل اثرگذار بر ناکامی ایالات متحده در مدیریت موفق بحران کووید-19 فراتر از ناکامی و ناتوانی رئیس‌جمهور یا دولت ایالات متحده است و ناشی از نظام سیاسی و حکمرانی ناکارآمد و درحال افول ایالات متحده است.

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دوره 2، شماره 4 - شماره پیاپی 8
فصلنامه زمستان
آبان 1402
صفحه 157-189
  • تاریخ دریافت: 08 بهمن 1401
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 24 شهریور 1402
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 23 مهر 1402
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 01 آبان 1402